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It is considered one of the best and most interesting card games for 3 players. Skat was developed by the members of the Brommesche Tarok-Gesellschaft  between and in Altenburg , in what is now the State of Thuringia , Germany , based on the three-player game of Tarock , also known as Tarot , and the four-player game of Schafkopf equivalent to the American game Sheepshead.
He then made two discards, constituting the Skat , and announced a contract. The first book on the rules of Skat was published in by a secondary school teacher J.
These were the first official rules finally published in a book form in by Theodor Thomas of Leipzig. The word Skat is a Tarok term  derived from the Latin word scarto, scartare , which means to discard or reject, and its derivative scatola , a box or a place for safe-keeping.
Because of the many variations in the rules of Skat, the rules below are necessarily general, although rules not found in official German tournament play are marked as such.
Skat is a game for three players. At the beginning of each round or 'deal', one player becomes declarer and the other two players become the defending team.
The two defenders are not allowed to communicate in any way except by their choice of cards to play.
The game can also be played by four players. In this case, the dealer will sit out the round that was dealt.
Each round of the game starts with a bidding phase to determine declarer and the required minimum Game Value explained below. Then, ten tricks are played, allowing players to take trick points.
Each card has a face value except in Null games and is worth that number of points for the player winning the trick. The total face value of all cards is points.
Declarer's goal is to take at least 61 points in tricks in order to win that round of the game. Otherwise, the defending team wins the round.
Points from tricks are not directly added to the players' overall score, they are used only to determine the outcome of the game win or loss for declarer , although winning by certain margins may increase the score for that round.
After each round a score is awarded in accordance with the Game Value. If declarer wins he is awarded a positive score, if he loses the score is doubled and subtracted from declarer's tally i.
The deck consists of 32 cards. At the beginning of each round each player is dealt ten cards, with the two remaining cards the so-called Skat being put face down in the middle of the table.
Dealing follows this pattern: In four-player rounds, the dealer does not receive any cards and skips actual play of the round. He or she may peek into the hand of one other player if allowed to do so but never into the Skat.
Dealing rotates clockwise around the table, so that the player sitting to the left of the dealer will be dealer for the next round.
After the cards have been dealt, and before the deal is played out, a bidding or auction German: Reizen is held to decide:.
The goal for each player during the bidding is to bid a Game Value as high as his or her card holding would allow, but never higher than necessary to win the auction.
How the actual Game Value is determined is explained in detail below and is necessary to understand in order to know how high one can safely bid.
It is possible for a player to overbid , which leads to an automatic loss of the game in question. Often this does not become obvious before the player picks up the Skat , or even not before the end of the game in question in case of a Hand game, when the Skat is not picked up.
Players have therefore to exercise careful scrutiny during bidding, as not to incur an unnecessary loss. The bidding may also give away some information about what cards a player may or may not hold.
Experienced players will be able to use this to their advantage. Spielwert is what the game will be worth after all tricks have been played.
It is determined not only by the 10 cards held, but also by the two-card Skat. The Skat always belongs to the declarer, and if it contains certain high cards this may change the Game Value.
It is therefore not possible in general to determine the exact Game Value before knowing the Skat. In a Suit game German: Farbspiel , one of the four suits is the trump suit.
This Base Value German: Grundwert is then multiplied by the multiplier Game Level German: Spielstufe or Gewinngrad to determine the Game Value , i.
The multiplier Game Level of 1 for becoming declarer is always assumed. It is then increased by one for each of the following:.
In case of a Hand game declarer does not pick up the Skat , the following special cases are allowed. Each one increases the multiplier Game Level by another point:.
Cards in the trump suit are ordered as follows this is important to know when counting the length of the Matadors jack straight:. The Jack of Clubs is the highest-ranking card in a Suit game and is called in German "der Alte" "the old man".
As mentioned above, the cards in the Skat are to be included when determining the multiplier Game Level also in case of the Hand game, where the Skat is unknown until after the deal has been played out.
During bidding, each player therefore has incomplete information regarding the true Game Value. Grand is a special case of Suit game, in which only the Jacks are trumps in the same order as in the Suit game:.
The Base Value for the Grand game is 24 in the official rules. It used to be 20 until , and many hobbyists continued to use 20 well into the postwar era.
All other rules for determining Game Value are as in a Suit game, i. In the Null game, declarer promises not to take any tricks at all.
There is no trump suit and jacks are treated as normal suit cards sorted between 10 and queen. Thus the cards are ordered: The Game Values of Null games are fixed, as follows:.
The following examples give a player's holding and the contents of the Skat which will be unknown to all players during the auction and explain how to derive the Game Value.
The multiplier Game Level will be 2 1 for Matadors jack strait plus 1 for becoming declarer. Note that Game Value is dependent not only on the cards held including the Skat but also on which game is being declared and the outcome of the play.
Each holding can thus be evaluated differently by different players. A risk-taking player might be willing to declare Hand on a holding on which another player might not — these two players will therefore give different valuations to the same holding.
However, after all tricks have been played, it is always possible to determine the exact Game Value by combining the actual holding with the type of game and outcome of the play.
Only then it becomes apparent if declarer has won or lost if he overbid. Assuming a trump suit of Hearts in a Suit game, this holding will have a different valuation before and after the Skat has been examined.
This holding can be safely valuated at 40 10x4 , regardless of the Skat. With Hearts as trump, the Game Value will always be at least that much.
Now, assuming declarer wins by taking 95 points in tricks, after having declared Hand and Schneider , the actual Game Value will be as follows:.
The player could have bid up to that value during the auction. Most players will declare a Grand game with the above hand, as it will be much more lucrative than a Suit game in Hearts declarer will concede at most two Club tricks, probably achieving Schneider for a Game Value of at least 24x6.
Now for the special cases: If you think you can do more than just win, you can add points for the special cases. The highest possible multiplier Game Level is The lowest possible multiplier Game Level is 2: The order of bidding is determined by the seating order.
Starting from the left of the dealer players are numbered clockwise: Vorhand , the second seat German: Mittelhand and the third seat German: In a three-player game, the dealer will be the third seat.
In a four-player game the third seat will be to the right of the dealer. Bidding starts by the player in second seat making a call to the player in first seat on which the latter can hold or pass.
If the first seat player holds, the second seat player can make a higher call or pass himself. This continues until either of the two players passes.
The player in third seat is then allowed to continue making calls to the player who has not yet passed.
Bidding ends as soon as at least two players have passed. It is also possible for all three players to pass. The mnemonic is commonly used among casual players.
Alice, Bob and Carole are playing, and seated in that order around the table. Alice deals the cards. Carole makes the first call to Bob, who passes right away.
Alice then makes two more calls to Carole, who accepts both bids. Alice then passes as well. The bidding ends, with Carole being the declarer for this round.
Except for "pass", only the possible Game Values are legal calls. Therefore, the lowest possible call is 18, which is the lowest possible Game Value in Skat.
Players are free to skip intermediate values, although it is common to always pick the lowest available call while bidding.
The sequence of possible Game Values through 60, beginning with 18 is 18—20—22—23—24—27—30—33—35—36—40—44—45—46—48—50—54—55—59—60 higher bids are possible albeit rare in a competitive auction.
Also, numbers are frequently abbreviated by only calling the lower digit of a value not divisible by 10 e. As the German words for "Null" and "zero" are identical, this yields the rather unintuitive sequence and so on.
If all players pass, the hand is not played and the next dealer shuffles and deals. A dealer never deals twice in a row. It is common in informal play to play a variant of Skat called Ramsch junk, rummage instead of skipping the hand and dealing for the next one.
This is not part of the sanctioned rules, however. In a pass-out game, the player in first seat will be the last one to pass.
If that player intends to become declarer, however, he has to make a call of at least 18 picking up the Skat in that situation implies the call.
Players Alice, Bob and Carol are seated in that order, clockwise; Alice is the dealer. The auction proceeds as follows initial of player name in parentheses: The winner of the auction becomes declarer.
He will play against the other two players. Before the hand is played, declarer either. After putting two cards back into the Skat , declarer then either declares a Suit game by announcing a trump suit, declares a Grand game or a Null game.
If Hand has been declared, the player may make additional announcements such as Schneider , Schwarz and Ouvert.
A common variant in non-sanctioned play allows the defenders to announce "Kontra! In this case, the stakes will be doubled for the hand.
In a less common further variation this process can be repeated twice more by announcing "Supra" and "Resupra" or more colloquially, "Bock" [ roe buck] and "Hirsch" [red deer] , or the like, which are colloquial augments of "Reh" roe deer.
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Be the first to complete a horizontal, vertical line, two different diagonal lines, pattern or full card to claim a prize.In den Turnieren des Deutschen Skatverbands wird mit vier Spielern an Beste Spielothek in Gerderhahn finden Tisch gespielt, wenn möglich der Geber setzt beim jeweiligen Blatt aus. Ein Grand-Hand zählt nicht zu der Ramschrunde. Im Freizeitspiel richtet sich die Rundenzahl meist nach den Vorlieben der einzelnen Spieler. Dezember wurde in Altenburg das Internationale Skatgericht gegründet, das über strittige Fälle entscheidet. Die Basics sind somit allseits bekannt: Der Alleinspieler bekommt in der Regel den Wert des Spiels als Spielpunkte angeschrieben, wenn er gewinnt. Es Beste Spielothek in Beuerfeld finden der doppelte Wert des Spiels abgezogen, wenn er verliert. Wenn sich nach dem Spiel herausstellt, dass das Reizgebot nicht erreicht wurde, was sich zum Beispiel durch ungünstige Karten im Skat ergeben kann, hat der Alleinspieler überreizt und sein Spiel verloren. Diese Variation ist vor allem für Anfänger mit wenig Erfahrung beim Reizen interessant, hat aber auch für Fortgeschrittene ihren Reiz durch die Pflichtspiele und den Entscheidungszwang. Häufig trägt jeder Spieler zu Beginn des Spiels, ireland casinos wenn dieser leer ist, einen kleinen Slot machine free cleopatra zum Pot bei. Die Gegner dürfen die Taktik nicht untereinander besprechen. Dies kann auf mehrere Arten funktionieren.